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Juveniles in Corrections
Custody Data (1997-Present)
Q: Does the minority proportion of juvenile offenders in residential placement vary by state and placement status?
A: In nearly all states, a disproportionate number of minorities were in residential placement in 2011.

Minority proportion of juvenile offenders in residential placement, 2011

State of offense
                                    Minority proportion                                    
Juvenile
population
Total CJRP Detained
        Committed        
Public Private

U.S. total 43 % 68 % 71 % 69 % 62 %
Alabama 38   62   69   66   55  
Alaska 41   65   *58   *69   *83  
Arizona 55   67   61   70   *62  
Arkansas 31   57   70   47   55  
California 69   86   86   87   83  

Colorado 38   59   62   56   58  
Connecticut 34   79   74   83   *57  
Delaware 42   78   *81   *77   *71  
District of Columbia 88   98   98   *100   *91  
Florida 51   62   57   65   63  

Georgia 50   81   82   83   58  
Hawaii 81   *70   *100   *57   --  
Idaho 20   26   18   31   --  
Illinois 44   70   77   69   52  
Indiana 22   39   39   42   35  

Iowa 15   39   44   48   35  
Kansas 27   45   55   40   39  
Kentucky 15   41   48   40   *35  
Louisiana 45   76   72   79   74  
Maine 7   18   *25   20   --  

Maryland 50   84   88   80   83  
Massachusetts 28   70   72   *80   66  
Michigan 28   62   63   49   67  
Minnesota 22   63   57   68   64  
Mississippi 49   83   78   87   --  

Missouri 23   43   51   40   *75  
Montana 16   39   *31   *41   *56  
Nebraska 24   56   54   54   59  
Nevada 57   71   75   72   *57  
New Hampshire 9   *20   --   *25   *15  

New Jersey 44   83   90   79   *78  
New Mexico 71   83   74   87   *87  
New York 46   78   86   92   66  
North Carolina 41   77   77   80   *69  
North Dakota 15   46   --   *50   *44  

Ohio 22   56   57   54   61  
Oklahoma 38   63   63   66   *58  
Oregon 29   42   38   48   26  
Pennsylvania 26   69   62   73   71  
Rhode Island 31   65   69   --   *58  

South Carolina 42   69   64   74   74  
South Dakota 21   52   *48   55   52  
Tennessee 29   64   63   66   53  
Texas 63   81   84   82   72  
Utah 22   45   43   48   42  

Vermont 7   *8   --   --   --  
Virginia 39   71   69   73   --  
Washington 33   52   52   52   *44  
West Virginia 7   23   26   23   19  
Wisconsin 23   69   74   77   53  
Wyoming 18   28   --   *33   21  

-- Too few juveniles (fewer than 20) to calculate a reliable percentage.
* Percent based on a small denominator (fewer than 100 but at least 20 in the denominator).

Notes: U.S. total excludes youth in tribal facilities but includes 2,324 juvenile offenders for whom State of offense was not reported (most of these youth are in private facilities). U.S. total includes a small number of offenders (5) who committed their offense in a U.S. Territory.

The juvenile population is the number of juveniles age 10 through the upper age of original juvenile court jurisdiction in each State.

Minorities include blacks, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and those identified as "other race."

To preserve the privacy of the juvenile residents, state cell counts have been rounded to the nearest multiple of three. Detail may not add to total because of rounding. Percentages are based on rounded totals. More information on this rounding rule is available on the EZACJRP Web site.

[ Map of minority proportion in residential placement ]  [ Excel file ]

  • Minority youth accounted for 43% of the U.S. juvenile population and 68% of juveniles in residential placement in 2011.
  • Minorities accounted for 67% of juveniles committed to public facilities nationwide; a proportion nearly twice their proportion in the juvenile population.
  • Minority proportions tended to be somewhat lower for youth committed to private rather than public facilities.
  • In 12 states (California, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Texas) and the District of Columbia, the minority proportion of the total population of juvenile offenders in residential placement was greater than 75%.

Internet citation: OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/corrections/qa08208.asp?qaDate=2011. Released on September 24, 2013.

Data Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement 2011 [machine-readable data files]. Washington, D.C.: OJJDP.

 

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